Product development and computer aided design

Work undertaken by a drawing office will vary considerably with different branches of industry.Generally, work of a ‘design and make’ nature will follow a plan which sets out stages in development from the time a potential client makes an enquiry until the completed product is delivered. The function of the product will dictate many of the associated activities.
A vehicle manufacturer will not design and make all of the parts used but subcontract components from specialists. The engine incorporates electrical and
mechanical components and these need to conform to agreed specifications. They must also be designed for installation in specified areas and be suitable for
operation in well defined conditions. Component manufacturers strive to improve quality and performance in conjunction with end user. The stages in design and development for components in this category are shown typically, step by step.
1 A client requiring a certain product is often not completely familiar with specific details and needs the experience and advice from a specialist
producer to clarify initial ideas. When a range of viable alternatives is presented, opinions can be focused and firm decisions made.
2 The Chief Engineer in a company has the responsibility of producing the company
specification for a product. He will no doubt seek advice where aspects of the total design are outside his range of experience, and where design is
involved on the fringes of Technology. However a top executive plan needs to be carefully prepared because at the outset the company must know
whether or not it wishes to entertain, or get involved with, design proposals to satisfy the client. For example, while rewards may well be great the
firm may not be able to cope with the scale of financial and labour demands and delivery requirements in view of current work. They simply may not wish to take the risk and, in view of available production capacity, the firm may prefer
not to tender for a possible order.

Chapter 2
Product development and computer aided design
1 Clients requirements
2 Company specification produced by chief engineer
3 Intial design concept
4 Agreed design concept
5 Preparation of working drawings
6 Design review
7 Prototype manufacture
8 Confirmation and testing
9 Test results
10 Design review
11 Production drawing and documentation
12 Make product and confirm production specifications
13 Development program for field trials
14 Final product design input review
15 Design release for manufacture
16 Production plant and tooling
17 Production sample
18 Full scale production

2A Preparation of top executive plan
3A Consultation with interfacing
specialists: design and production
engineers, quality controllers,
metallurgists, etc.
3B Allocation of specific
activity requirement
4A Provisional customer acceptance
regarding installation:
space etc.
6A Manufacturing and costing
economics, future repeatability
8A Verification and development
10A Audited technical analysis
14A Final design verifications
17A Verification of manufacturing
production processes
8 Manual of Engineering Drawing
3 Drawings at this stage should be regarded only as
provisional. The exercise is needed as an aid to
thinking around the problem, with contributions
being made by specialists within the firm to ensure
CAD has many virtues at this stage of primary
design. All information, defined in mathematical
terms, can be stored in the system and manipulated
on the display. After the basic geometry is
established, design variations can be kept and in
redrawing alternatives, sections of the previous
proposals which were found to be acceptable can
be used repeatedly. At any point in development
the designer can take a printout, so that suggestions
and comments can be made by other technical
It is essential that the Company should
appreciate the extent of their commitment if a
firm order is accepted at a later date. This commitment
includes not only the technical ability to
complete the design and manufacture a satisfactory
product but also the financial issues relating to its
introduction on the factory production line.
4 With the completion of preliminary design work
an agreed design concept will have been established,
but it is necessary to obtain customer
approval before work continues. If our product is
to be used in conjunction with others in a large
assembly, then, for example, expected overall
dimensions and operational parameters need to
be confirmed with the client before money is spent
on further development.
5 If all is well, working drawings will be prepared.
These are not production drawings—at this stage,
we as a company have only ensured that our
proposals are in line with requirements and that
hopefully we shall be able to deliver. The object
now is to prepare working drawings to formulate
construction methods.
6 A design review is necessary to check the feasibility
of manufacturing, to ensure that all aspects of
design requirements have been incorporated in an
economic manner and to guarantee future supplies.
7 A prototype or a small batch may now be manufactured.
The ultimate production methods of
manufacture will not be employed here. For
example, components which may be moulded could
be machined from solid to eliminate casting costs.
8 Prototypes are used for testing to make certain
that operational requirements of the specification
can be achieved. As a result design changes may
be necessary. Product tests cover all areas where
the component will be expected to function without
failure, and these could include use in extremes
of temperature and humidity, also when subject
to shock, vibration and fatigue.
9 Proven test results are vital to confirm the validity
of these tests.
10 A design review and analysis ensure that progress
at this point will be acceptable in every technical
aspect to each responsible member of the team.
11 Production drawing can commence now that the
performance targets from the prototype have been
confirmed. Drawings of the prototype will be
reviewed and modifications made to use full scale
production processes during manufacture. For plant
to be used efficiently plans need to be prepared
for loading and progressing work through the
factory. The necessary documentation now commences.
12 Manufacture of the final product following production
of the prototype has involved modifications
and different manufacturing processes. It is
therefore prudent to check that the specifications
can still be kept.
13 Following trials where the equipment is used in
its operational environment and its performance
exhaustively checked, the design details can be
released for full scale production.
14 Production involves not only the use of machines,
but many jigs, fixtures, tools, gauges, inspection
procedures need to be planned, and auxiliary
equipment designed to move materials on and off
production lines.
15 Inevitably teething troubles occur and samples
are taken to verify that all plant and equipment
operates as planned. Economic production requires
that downtime is eliminated before full-scale
production commences.

fr :
Manual of
Engineering Drawing
Second edition
Colin H Simmons
I.Eng, FIED, Mem ASME.
Engineering Standards Consultant
Member of BS. & ISO Committees dealing with
Technical Product Documentation specifications
Formerly Standards Engineer, Lucas CAV.
Dennis E Maguire
CEng. MIMechE, Mem ASME, R.Eng.Des, MIED
Design Consultant
Formerly Senior Lecturer, Mechanical and
Production Engineering Department, Southall College
of Technology
City & Guilds International Chief Examiner in
Engineering Drawing

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